Semantics of the verbs with the middle degree of polysemy denoting conflict actions in modern English




Linguists around the world hold the opinion that nowadays lexical semantics is the most productive basis for all-round studying linguistic content without which the definite language system can’t be adequately presented in general. Semantics is defined as the study of words and their meanings. The growing interest to the study of the language units in the semantically united group can be explained by the fact that only carefully collected and classified language material allows to solve a range of the most important issues. That is why the present article deals with the study of the group of verbs with the middle degree of polysemy denoting conflict actions which occupy a significant place in the system of the English language. Conflict actions are classified by types and forms of expression, but most clearly their versatility is revealed through their formalized research. By means of the formalized lexical semanticsʼ analysis methodology their qualitative and quantitative characteristics have been disclosed. Besides, both common and distinctive features of the units’ semantics under study have been revealed. On this basis lexical semantics of the verbs denoting conflict actions as well as their seme stock in modern English have been highlighted. The semantic analysis of the verbs with the middle degree of polysemy denoting conflict actions in modern English gives reason to consider the lexis fragment under study as a definite semantic structure, the elements of which are placed hierarchically in their various relationships with both each other and other words. In its turn, the conflict actions based on the opposing goals, interests, types of people’s behavior and social groups, accompanied by negative psychological manifestations, are worth studying from psychological, sociological and linguistic aspects. In addition, it is no secret that conflict actions are constant “fellows” of man which accompany a person from the first until the last day of life. Life comprises “everlasting” problems between leader and subordinates, common habitation of people of various characters, interests and views on life. Thus, at this level conflict actions arise that confront us with such phenomena as terror, strike, war, controversy etc. In the process of our complex lexico-semantic analysis, we have found common (to make (smth.) against smb.; to contend in, for, with or against smth./smb.; violently; side by side with; to oppose (in smth.); rebelliously; to oppose by contrary operations; to fight for, against; to meet in combat; to engage in battle; to strike; to put an end to; to strive in, with or against smb. or smth.; to throw, to combat, etc.) and distinctive (to break up with smb.; to expose; to urge, to close, to repulse by force of arms; to follow a person or thing; to comply with, to continue; to load or burden with smth.; to tyrannize over, etc.) features of the lexical units in question.

Keywords: lexical semantics, conflict actions, formalized analysis, seme stock, qualitative and quantitative characteristics.


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